The impacts of global economic recession, climate change events and oil price shocks cause a re-evaluation of global economic, environmental and energy policies. At the same time, attention to environmental and energy issues grows, both in industrialized and developing countries.
With the paradigm of a market-driven, services-based and trade-oriented global economy that lifts all stakeholders called into question, the role of industrialization as an engine for social development and economic growth is reaffirmed. Important developed countries and regions (e.g. the European Union, USA) adopt policies targeting “reindustrialization”.
The adoption of the Paris High-Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness (2005) and the Accra Agenda for Action (2008) emphasizes the development cooperation trend towards harmonization and coordination of donor programmes and funding instruments, as well as a stronger emphasis on ownership and use of local capacities for execution.
The breakdown of discussions on the Doha Development Agenda, as well as the financial crisis in Europe and the USA, move the political focus on to the rise in inequalities between, as well as within, countries. Consequently, new concepts to achieve not only development and sustainability but also inclusion are discussed, and industrialization is identified as promising in this regard.
In the year 2013, UNIDO’s General Conference, in its second Lima declaration, adopts the concept of Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development (ISID). During this decade, UNIDO increases significantly its technical cooperation portfolio particularly in the areas of energy and environment, and takes leadership using convening power in the shaping of policy processes. This results in the adoption of international and sub-regional standards, such as ISO 50001, and policies and campaigns such as Sustainable Energy for All. To facilitate the efforts of governments in implementing ISID, UNIDO launches pilots for its Programme for Country Partnerships (PCPs).